1961 ewca civ 7
In some classes of contracts such as sale of goods, marine insurance, contracts of affreightment evidenced by bills of lading and those between parties to tills of exchange, Parliament has defined by statute some of the events not provided for expressly in individual contracts of that class; but where an event occurs the occurrence of which neither the parties nor Parliament have expressly stated will discharge one of the parties from further performance of his undertakings it is for the court to determine whether the event has this effect or not. has exercised the English Courts for centuries, probably ever since assumpsit emerged as a form of action distinct from covenant and debt and long before even the earliest cases which we have been invited to examine; In the earlier cases before the Common Law Procedure Act, 1852, the problem tends to be obscured to modern readers by the rules of pleading peculiar to the relevant forms of action-covenant, debt and assumpsit, and the nomenclature adopted in the judgments, which were mainly on demurrer, reflects this. Subject to the terms of the contract, of course, neither contracting party can unilaterally withdraw from the contract. Herbert Smith Freehills LLP. Previous Post Previous Amendment: Pleading awful. [New search] It was said that a delay which would frustrate a contract was not in the minds of the 19th century judges and that their language permits of a lesser period of delay being sufficient to justify an innocent party from continuing with his bargain after a reasonable delay due to the breach of contract. The Hong Kong Fir confirmed that the term "seaworthiness" has a very broad meaning ranging from trivial defects like a missing life preserver or a major flaw that would sink the ship. 9 Ibid. In the earlier cases before the Common Law Procedure Act, 1852, the problem tends to be obscured to modern readers by the rules of pleading peculiar to the relevant forms of action-covenant, debt and assumpsit, and the nomenclature adopted in the judgments, which were mainly on demurrer, reflects this.  It was not, however, until Jackson v. Union Marine Insurance (1874) 10 Common Pleas page 125, that it was recognised that it was the happening of the event and not the fact that the event was the result of a breach by one party of his contractual obligations that relieved the other party from further performance of his obligations. As my "brethren have already pointed out, the shipowner's undertaking to tender a seaworthy ship has, as a result of numerous decisions as to what can amount to "unseaworthiness", become one of the most complex of contractual undertakings. In Universal Cargo Carriers Corporation v. Citati (1957 2 Queen's Bench, page 401) a similar argument was advanced by Mr. Ashton Roskill (then appearing for shipowners who had cancelled a voyage charter-party because no cargo had been provided) and he relied on passages in the line of cases which he cited to us here and the statement in Scrutton on Charterparties in the earlier editions. Tully v. Howling (1877 2 Queen's Bench, page 182), although in favour of the charterer, gives no support to the appellants here whether it was decided on the ground of the majority that time was the essence of the contract and that the charterer who had a contract for twelve months' service was not bound to ten months' service, or, as Mr. Justice Brett held on appeal, that the ship was not fit for the purpose for which she was chartered and could not be made fit within any time which would not have frustrated the object of the adventure. I shall not recite any of the facts, and propose only to add a few words upon the two main submissions so meticulously argued before us by Mr. Ashton Roskill for the appellants. Constant & Constant) appeared on behalf of the Appellants (Defendants). The molasses had drained from the wet sugar into the hold in large quantities and the ship's pumps were unable to deal with it. has exercised the English Courts for centuries, probably ever since assumpsit emerged as a form of action distinct from covenant and debt and long before even the earliest cases which we have been invited to examine; but until the rigour of the rule in Paradine v Jane was mitigated in the middle of the last century by the classic judgments of Mr Justice Blackburn in Taylor v Caldwell  and Baron Bramwell in Jackson v Union Marine Insurance  it was, in general, only events resulting from one party's failure to perform his contractual obligations that were regarded as capable of relieving the other party from continuing to perform what he had undertaken.
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