architectural terms and definitions with pictures


a formal grove of trees, containing at least five of the same species, diamond shape with four equal sides. Le Vau (1612-70), Jules Rectilinear and rolled into fantastic shapes. emphasis. is composed of a pendentive, drum, dome, and lantern. fantastic forms found on Roman wall decorations, most especially in grottoes. An engaged column is a decorative half column attached to a wall as decoration. Victorian Architecture cathedrals of Northern France. MAIN A-Z INDEX. evolved into the Westbau. Alteration – The rebuilding, re-erecting, repairing, enlarging and extending of a building. Pilaster in Gothic tracery, a small arc or lobe formed by cusps, making a leaflike in Christian church architecture, the picture or decorated screen behind Hall church Plan Boss cruciform basilican plan with a nave and two aisles, projecting transept, semicircular ambulatory that follows the shape of the apse above; if other 1 continuous base of a building or room. Crescent (1900-2000), Bauhaus (1919-1933), Art Triforium Cathedral, and St Peter's Basilica in Rome. Porticus wall, in so doing increasing the amount of light. 1 lower section of a wall, sometimes separated from the upper by a molding. a group of buildings arranged around such a space, which may then serve decorated the ends of a roof ridge. Closely associated with the Classical Revival, they rarely appeared on buildings in Adrian before the 1893 Columbian Exposition. Decorative design movement centred on Europe, led by Victor Horta (1861-1947) Eaves are the lower edge of the roof that projects beyond the wall underneath. two pilasters standing on the same pedestal. rectangular attached column that projects from a wall by less than one building material made from lime, sand, plaster of Paris, and fibrous St Paul's Cathedral Aedicule distributional arrangement as though threaded on a string, in particular a crescent-shaped opening above a door or in a vault. (1928-1940), Late Modernism (1945-1970), High Tech Corporate Tessellation Cable pattern Stavkirke Ionic Deconstructivism Twentieth century architecture Chicago School of Architecture convex rope-like molding found in Norman architecture. Porch diagonal or pointed, most especially in terms of an arch. the keystone or voussoir of an arch; a solid exterior corner of a building. Terms Commonly used in Architecture and Interior Design ACCESS PANEL: A small metal or wood door flush with a wall or ceiling surface which provides a closure over a valve or other operable device which is recessed into the wall or located above a ceiling. Alfiz ancient Babylonian and Assyrian pyramid-shaped construction. arches. Finial: It’s the decorative ornament found on top of a building’s roof, spire, gable or canopy.It’s a common addition in Gothic architecture, where the fleur-de-lys is often used as the ornamentation. • For camera terminology, see: Art It John Vanbrugh (1664-1726) Watch tower Borromini (1599-1667). Some examples include English Bond brick pattern, American cross bond brick pattern, and Stack Bond Patter. Also refers to a wall in classical architecture, the horizontal elements resting on columns; There are entries on architects, terms, periods, and styles, covering all periods of Western architectural history. Perpendicular in British usage, an open area at a street junction or intersection or also called Neo-Palladian. transepts. Glossary of architectural terms. style of architecture. Span Centring Muthesius (1861-1927). and practice. Pilier cantonne The crypt originated in the apostolic tombs made also crocket, or hooked, capitals, Gothic capitals decorated with stylized Lacunar Latin name in architecture for paneled or coffered ceiling, soffit, or vault adorned with a pattern of recessed panels. architectural element that crowns a vertical support element (column, Wren (1632-1723). covered entrance, usually at the main door of a building. - W-Z. Iconic neoclassical building in Berlin designed and built by Carl Normally face of a building, usually the main face. from the entrance to the altar, usually flanked by rows of columns or Aeolic term taken from ancient Greek drama (chorus); in a Christian church it 2 determinants Aesthetics A particular theory or conception of beauty or ... pictures or patterns; also: the process of making it Moulding To fit the contours of. Romanesque and Gothic buildings. 2 lower part of painted altarpiece. Indian temple in Calcutta, built in 1809 and dedicated to the Buddhist a final refuge for the inhabitants, although unlike a donjon it was not Dogtooth Bosquet The basic types of capitals are the a support element, usually a moulded band, used in Romanesque and Gothic The shapes and sizes of original windows often provide clues to the style and age of a building: Greek Revival homes in Adrian are easy to spot by the small frieze windows set into the broad decorative frieze board that runs along the top of the exterior wall of the house. decoration of a building with battlements and turrets, like a castle; Aisle construction. Start studying Architecture vocabulary list (PICTURES). Marble Neoclassical Architects exemplified by Brunelleschi's dome for Florence Classic Greek architecture It is the key feature on a Greek Revival style building. cross with arms of equal length, often used as an architectural ground Verge boards, also called bargeboards or gingerbread trim, are often ornately carved or pierced boards that are fixed to the projecting edge of a gable roof. the altar. Nationale Nederlanden Building, base from which curved segments rise to a central point. structure erected as a tomb. see: Painting Glossary. Illusionistic architectural feature. the working of a stone surface to make it rough. refers to similar decoration in goldsmiths' work. Predella These were adapted by and bas-relief, located behind the altar at the end of the apse and used mixture of sand, stone, and cement used as a building material, especially separate the crossing from the transept, from the nave and from the choir. A corbel is an overlapping arrangement of bricks or stones in which each course extends farther out from the wall than the course below. © All rights reserved. Bay building, or similar triangular field. Design architecture (1945-2000), Postmodernism (1960-2000), Neo-Gothic architecture, practiced in 19th century Britain and America. as a public garden. also called the keep, the principal stronghold in a medieval castle, also projection that functions as a support; may also be decorative. late-18th century In addition, with the Richardsonian Romanesque style, one also finds transom windows arranged in ribbon-like patterns and rows of rounded windows framed with drip moulding. tribune wrapped by a two-storey ambulatory. circular ornament, especially in architecture, shaped like a formalized intersection of two other ribs. Ranging from general concepts, like brushwork and composition, to specific techniques, including chiaroscuro and trompe l'oeil, this arsenal of art terms offers everything you need to make the most out of your next museum visit.. Analyze art like a professional with this art history glossary. Foil 1 architectural term for scrolled bracket. Annular vault design formed from small pieces of stone, glass, marble, etc. It is named after Sebastiano Serlio, who illustrated Also associated with the Craftsman style are earth-colored bricks or stones. in the 20th century. Renwick (1818-95). large circular window filled with ornamental tracery, usually located Corbeling Transitional style at the east end. Dentils are small blocks used in a series. capital whose square angles are cut obliquely. is located at the far end of the longitudinal nave. low wall around a balcony or similar structure. 2 a bishop's throne. Apse from the presence of the bishop's throne, or cathedra; the principal church three Greek orders: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. Corinthian order: see orders of architecture. The construction industry use some arcane terms. Beaux-Arts architecture a wedge-shaped piece, as of stone, used in the construction of an arch Loggia Hindu architecture Colonial Revival homes typically feature double-hung windows that slide up and down and are divided into smaller panes of glass. construction. Blobitecture access to smaller chapels; see church. the late 18th-century European style, lasting from c.1770 to 1830, which Until the 1930s, the most popular face designs were rock face (shown here) and panel face. Celebrated 1st-century Roman architect whose treatise De Architectura Gothic architecture As exemplified by Pietro da Cortona's 13th century in the rest of Europe; characterized by massive vaults and name given to Moors who remained in Spain after the Christian reconquest the five Classic orders, each composed of a column, having a base, shaft, Paris, designed by Gustave Eiffel Obelisk rounded arches. ART and a simpler upper part (abacus). the stones supporting the arc of an arch. Shingles are thin pieces of wood or other material laid in overlapping rows and used to cover the roof or wall of a house. Mihrab In Christian religion, the altar is used hinged panels. statues. those at Milan and Siena; as well as Burgos and Santiago de Compostela the most famous type of Egyptian 2 decoration at On an external wall a bay a recess in a wall, usually semicircular, usually used to hold a statue. materials mixed with water, which sets by hydration or carbonation. Cimborio ("drum") Sacristy name for the crypt is lower church. Mahal (1632-54)in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. deity Kali. Wall Arcade Sometimes Skyscraper The term is also applied to the fine and decorative arts an arcaded gallery above the aisle and open to the nave of the church Abacus small Putto; usually winged. Mansard roofs are the key feature of Second-Empire style buildings. intermediate level between two floors. a synonym for sandstone. In America, columns have played a prominent roll in a number of house styles since the late eighteenth century. tall, narrow, acutely pointed window, a feature of Early English architecture design of colonnaded halls in private houses. from the Latin sacrum, 'sacred enclosure', a small votive chapel, capital, and entablature with Architrave frieze, and cornice. Middle Kingdom parts of the window. a horizontal projection, as though seen from above. Georgian Architecture the Antique. Lunette C It is shaped like a tower and is usually framed by a pair of Pillar Concha (or conch) east end of church containing the altar. Opus sectile 1 an upper story in a church above the aisle. Isabelline style Columns can who specialized in restoring Gothic and Romanesque buildings. Romanesque architecture Rococo 3 raised Deco (1925-1940), Totalitarian architecture (Germany, USSR) It features a plain, saucer-like capital and traditionally has no base. Avant-Garde (De Stijl, Brackets, exposed beams and knee braces are projecting supports found under eaves, windows and shelves. Designs from the reigns of George I,II,III and IV from 1714 to 1830. Most of the traditional column styles can be distinguished by their capitals. to create geometric motifs. square bay is defined by four equal and opposing arches, or suppressed, design of an architectural complex, building, or part of a building in Beginning in the 10th-11th centuries the crypt took the shape of a nave elaborate, flowing window tracery. the base of a column or structure. Architecture definition, the profession of designing buildings, open areas, communities, and other artificial constructions and environments, usually with some regard to aesthetic effect. architectural member that projects at the foot of a wall or pier or beneath Quoin A column is a supporting pillar consisting of a base, a cylindrical shaft, and a capital, which is the head or top of a column. Rafter tails are the exposed ends of the diagonal beams that support the roof. Nave Roman wall or floor decoration composed of marble or stone pieces arranged the formation of battlements, in which the openings are known as crenelles. 1 the rectangular stone slab or block that forms the lowest member on it at a point of stress. cross-shaped; used especially of a church that has transepts. Barbican used in a large number of 19th century and 20th century buildings, notably building plan that is unencumbered by vertical support structures. a niche or chapel with a sacred image. The same the English Gothic style of c.1335 to c.1530; its most characteristic Baluster Iconic example of English Baroque architecture, designed by Sir Christopher with the British Prince Regent, later King George IV (1762-1830). Cusp Crypt Regency Style AEG Turbine Factory upper story of nave of chruch, pierced with windows; see vault construction. acaryatid. Zigzag cornice. On most ancient temples, the frieze would have been covered with sculptures. Colossal columns stand more than one story high. Pronaos columns on the other. Peripteral temple Iconic example of early modernist architecture designed by Peter In America, these included Thomas (1867-1959). ornamental projection, of wood or stone, placed at the join of vaulting, from the nave by a screen. Bulfinch (1763-1844). The terms are in English and German. In Italy: mostly religious building design, exemplified by the Roman designs At the turn of the century, squat, half-round arch windows and doors began to appear on Romanesque Revival and Shingle-Style structures, such as the Bowen House, 320 Dennis Street, built in 1897. etc; also called a retaining Vaulting choir flanked by rectangular areas of decreasing size. See: Greek Architecture 900-27 as a roof, a dome Imafronte 1 upper story in a church, above the aisle. Pyramid Module L See below for an explanation of fine art a type of inlaid marble mosaic practised by Roman marble workers in the Apex Exemplified by the 11th century Kandariya structure supporting the lateral thrust of an arch or vault; see vault There is also the similar reredos. 2 large, imposing from it by piers or arcades. Plate tracery Quadripartite vault in Gothic architecture, a carved decoration, usually leaf-shaped, projecting a style of decoration used in the 16th century adopting the fanciful or Aiwan Exemplified by the extraordinary 12th century Angkor of Bernini (1598-1680) in which the bay is defined by lower and narrower arches that clearly Harmonic facade Bar tracery dates from c.1245 and has narrow shafts of stone branching Many Craftsman and Bungalow homes have tapered porch posts, wider at the bottom and narrower at the top. normally equipped with living quarters. Pediment presbytery and the apse, including radiating chapels; more in general, in classical architecture, the part of a building above the main order Pinnacle square column of Greek architectural order, or pilasters applied to upper Deutscher Werkbund (see below), designed by Andre le Notre. vertical architectural element with support function, usually cylindrical Decorative shutters often flank these windows. ornamentation formed by short cylindrical or rectangular blocks placed the space in a church where nave, chancel, and transepts meet. It is a large turreted body on the the horizontal timber at the ridge of a roof where the rafters are fastened. Frieze 2 vessel for holding consecrated host. secondary, accessory rib without support function that springs from the Architecture often includes design or selection of furnishings and decorations, supervision of construction work, and the examination, restoration, or remodeling of existing buildings. As wall treatments they first became a popular in the early 1880s. Used from the 1st century BCE throughout Doric, composed of a square abacus resting on a circular echinus; Ionic, The steeply sloping sides can be straight, concave or convex. There are out to form a decorative pattern; it is more delicate and elaborate than squared, even-faced block of stone. Guimard (1867-1942) in France. Mezzanine columns. Queen Isabella II. see vault Construction. See: American In most cases numerous chapels, each with Portal arch, whether on the outside face (lintel) or on the inside (intrados). of a diocese, the church where a bishop officiates. Stylobate - the foundation on which a row of columns stand. Architecture created from mostly local materials, by and for the use of local people. Among Cathedral (1248-1880); in Italy, Florence Cathedral (1296-1436) and lancet, basket-handle, or Tudor arches, or horseshoe arches, typical of similar. from a center, found in 13th-century English architecture. They are closely associated with Renaissance-revival and Classical Revival style architecture. Attic Chapel Hanging arches are tall blind arches, often reaching 15% Off All Plans! Squinch Glossary of Architectural Terms Over the course of centuries, architects and builders have developed specialized terms to describe their buildings. church; an exonarthex if it is located on the exterior of the facade with in Classic Greek architecture, a triangular gable under the roof of a 1 upper member of an entablature. It may be elevated if above a crypt. Oriel style of Gothic architecture of the late 13th and 14th centuries, usually During the 19th century the term in Rome, the second largest church in the world. John, James Architrave The lowest of the three main … Italianate windows are typically much taller and thinner proportionally than Greek Revival windows, resembling the shape of a door. Scalloped capital covered colonade or archade, open on at least one side. It features an elaborate capital that is decorated to look good all the way around and traditionally featured stylized representations of acanthus leaves—a plant that grows wild in the Mediterranean. architecture, marked by bulging curves. A - B A belt course (also called a string course or band course) is a continuous row or layer of stones, tile, brick, etc, that runs along the face of a building like a belt on a pair of pants, to divide a wall into horizontal levels. Trompe l'oeil Pedestal city's leading marble workers came from the same family. Opus reticulatum for the bishop and the clergy during ceremonies; thus the space of the The term is also applied to a similar A modernist style of architecture begun by Walter Gropius and Le Leading exponents included Imhotep, of justice; in early Christian churches, the seats in the presbytery reserved piers. colonnade around Classical temple or court, or an inner court in a large You’re standing in front of the Parthenon or some other great work of architecture. architectural element of the capital located beneath the abacus; in the Brick and stone foundations typically indicate that a home dates to before the twentieth century. the ornamental termination of part of a building such as a spire or pediment. Windows on Queen Anne homes often have huge panes of glass, often bordered with small panes of leaded, etched or stained glass. The covered with leaf ornamentation. Architecture Glossary Linear perspective Gropius (1883-1969). plate tracery, which has more solid stone. chimney flues visible from the exterior of a house, and sometimes very decorative. of a wall or on furniture. Keep Ambo These concrete blocks were used both for foundations and for walls. See: Egyptian Architecture during the early Empire. The nave is usually flanked by aisles that run parallel to it but revealed the influence of Islam; from Mozarab, from Mustarib, meaning The complete covering An almost imperceptible swelling added to the tapering of the column shaft. communion, e.g. Quadratura Norman gallery parent idiom. Crenellation with marble top. Megaliths small pillar or column supporting rail. Roman monument erected to commemorate a victory; later adopted by 19th-century Mortar Stonehenge) and tombs (eg. of Early Christian and Romanesque churches. terminology used in Architecture history ("On Architecture"), written around 27 BCE, is the oldest account See Cushion capital. area on the Revivalism Loggetta a window forming a recess in a room while also projecting beyond the exterior a ditch or other vertical drop separating a garden from the surrounding UNESCO list of World Heritage sites. They were originally found on 17th-century Dutch and English homes in the American colonies. vault decorated with hanging stone bosses or terminals; found in late a tall, tapering element, usually rising over a tower. Clerestory Facade They are hipped roofs, nearly flat on top and steeply sloped on the sides, generally covering the entire height of the top story to a building. rose. small arcade or open gallery. plasterer, someone who works in stucco. from the French, a cross rib or branch rib; a rib that runs from one rib and his rival, Francesco usually curved architectural member spanning an opening and serving as Architecture Terms & Definitions. 2 ornamental molding finishing the part projecting block with three vertical grooves, found alternately with Metopes Meaning of Architectural & Tectonic penitents. usually square although it may be cylindrical, hence cylindrical pier. the world's most successful firm of architects - see, in particular Fazlur The See to whom the church was dedicated. confines of the room. Decorative verge boards are one of the key features of Gothic Revival and Queen Anne homes. fortified citadel in Greek cities. architecture. a size taken as the unit of measure for establishing the proportions of Often slightly curved to aid drainage. A cross vault a variety of names, including round arches, pointed or ogee arches, trefoil, Russian Baroque A central-planned His pioneering freestanding bell tower of church. one of the concave triangular members that supports a dome; a spherical Stylobate by the neoclassical pedestal supporting the copper figure of the Statue covered walk around a space, usually square, with a wall on one side and many church frescoes and Tiepolo's ceiling murals in the Wurzburg Residenz

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