channa marulius feeding
The bullseye snakehead (C. marulius) is native to a wide range of countries in southern Asia and India and has been introduced to Broward County in Florida, USA (Howells, 2004). The bullseye snakehead (Channa marulius) has a flattened head with large scales, a torpedo-shaped body, long dorsal and anal fins without spines, and toothed jaws. These changes would have energetic implications for the entire aquatic ecosystem. Parietal scales are of moderate-size, with a rosette of head scales between the orbits, and a frontal head scale at the center. Great Snakehead Great Snakehead. A large, gular plate is also a defining characteristic of the bowfin that is not shared by any snakehead species. Channa fish price. Some snakeheads are highly valued in the food fish industry, particularly the northern snakehead (C. argus), blotched snakehead (C. maculata), Chinese snakehead (C. asiatica) and chevron snakehead (C. striata), as well as C. marulius (Herborg et al., 2007). These suprabranchial chambers are filled with folded tissues that have a high surface area, and allow oxygen change to occur directly between air and their blood. Lakra WS; Goswami M; Gopalakrishnan A; Singh DP; Singh A; Nagpure NS, 2010. It’s a species capable of breathing in the air. Bardach JE; Ryther JH; McLarney WO, 1972. The genetics of this species have been well studied, recently with particular focus on the genetic relatedness among fish species in the genus Channa (Lakra et al., 2010). http://www.newsobserver.com/sports/story/1319821.html, Courtenay Jr WR; Williams JD, 2004. Mean air temperature was identified as the most significant environmental variable with respect to habitat suitability (Herborg et al., 2007), and may explain the more tropical distribution of C. marulius in the United States when compared to other known invasive species of snakeheads, such as C. argus. Discussion from aquarist-oriented online hobby forums indicates an interest in the species and suggests it may be becoming as popular as C. micropeltes among aquarium enthusiasts (Schmidt, 2001). London, UK: Croom Helm, 180-213. Native populations of C. marulius are solitary and often use vegetation for camouflage while seeking prey (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). Once a habitat is no longer suitable and native populations have been decimated, C. marulius is capable of dispersing overland to exploit new environments and populations. Grown fish should be fed using forceps to prevent injury â to the human. Unlike mammals they lack a diaphragm, and use water to exchange old air with fresh air each time they take a breath. http://fisc.er.usgs.gov/Snakehead_circ_1251/circ_1251_courtenay.pdf, Froese R, Pauly D, 2009. 9497). When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. The most important aquaculture species of murrel in India is the striped murrel (Channa striata), the great snakehead murrel (Channa marulius) and the spotted snakehead (Channa punctata). Snakehead fry start out feeding on zooplankton but quickly reach a juvenile stage and begin to eat small crustaceans, insects and insect larvae. Kok LW, 1982. Channa catching barca in the area because it requires great courage to bet their lives. Available from: http://www.fishbase. After that, ... Bulleyes Snakehead fish: (Channa marulius.) Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Station of Ceylon, 20:101-134. It also enters flooded forests. They spend a lot of time hovering in midwater or resting on the bottom within cover as ambush predators. Note that cute juveniles will grow into fearsome predators. In Indonesia and the Philippines are also much consumed either fried, grilled or with soup. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=nwrcinvasive, Herborg LM; Mandrak NE; Cudmore BC; MacIsaac HJ, 2007. 276 pp. C. marulius is an important commercial, aquaculture, game and aquarium fish (FishBase, 2006). marulioides: from the specific name marulius and Ancient Greek Îµá¼¶Î´Î¿Ï (eidos), meaning âform, likenessâ, in reference to this speciesâ resemblance to its congener C. marulius. Proceedings of the 29th Kasetsart University Annual Conference: Animal Science, Veterinary Science, and Aquaculture. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Balkema, 1158 pp. Sellers make use of the ability of the fish to survive for a long time in just a thin film of water. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Right now we have lovely young animals of about 4-5 cm length in stock. The two species are not likely to be confused in the field as the geographic ranges of the fishes do not overlap (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). Fishes of Laos. Severe impacts are likely to be experienced by native fish communities, who have no natural enemies outside of their native environment, following an invasion by C. marulius in non-native water bodies. Channa marulius b.C.striatus c. C. punctatus d.C.gachua. The genus Channa contains 31 species that are native thoughout Asia fromÂ are native from Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead or great snakehead) is a large species of snakehead native to South Asia. Channa gachua and Channa orentalis are the only two species of snakehead that are mouthbrooders. The larvae remain in the nest, which is guarded by both parents feeding on the yolk in which they are wrapped. Those considering their first purchase should be well aware of what they are getting into. No types are known (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). Growing maximum 56 cm Channa marulius is too large for most aquarium setups. Specimens of C. marulius have been found at aquarium stores in the United States and Canada which indicates that the species is able to be obtained commercially, despite federal restrictions in the USA. It has been reported growing up to 180 cm long and weighing 30 kg from Maharashtra State, western India (Talwar and Jhingran, 1992); however, this is disputed (Pethiyagoda and Musikasinthorn, pers. Channa: Espècie: Channa marulius Hamilton, 1822, 1822: Nomenclatura; Sinònims: Channa marulia (Hamilton, 1822) Channa marulius ara (Deraniyagala, 1945) Ophicephalus grandinosus (Cuvier, 1831) Ophicephalus leucopunctatus (Sykes, 1839) Ophicephalus marulius (Hamilton, 1822) Ophicephalus marulius ara (Deraniyagala, 1945) Ophicephalus sowara (Cuvier, 1831) Ophiocephalus aurolineatus … Channa: from the Latin channe, used to refer to an unspecified species of sea perch.. marulioides: from the specific name marulius and Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos), meaning ‘form, likeness’, in reference to this species’ resemblance to its congener C. marulius. Heart of the Hills Research Station, Ingram, Texas 78025, USA: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Allahabad, India: Allahabad and Maya Press Pvt. In general, most species are probably best kept alone. The ideal temperature for this species is in the tropical range of approximately 24°C to 28°C (Pethiyagoda 1991). It has been introduced to the United States, where it is considered an invasive species. This is a native species of Southeast Asia but has been introduced in other countries. The aqua park will be a breeding centre for almost all varieties of indigenous fish, including Channa marulius ... fish seed Rs.1.5 lakh and fish feed Rs. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. There may be cultural ramifications, but it is more likely that there would economic and recreational losses of affected communities. Channa, commonly known as Snakeheads, are primitive predatory fish and members of the family Channidae. southeastern Iran and eastern Afghanistan eastward through Pakistan, India, southern To. Etymology. Many teeth in their jaw. They are also known to have certain PUFAs that can regulate prostaglandin synthesis and also induce wound healing. The species has been known to be cultured for the live food fish industry and is highly prized in Asian markets. 5 species (A. argus. Channa are predatory fish that prey in the juvenile stadium on plankton, insects and snails. Fish weighing up to 30 kg have been reported from its native range (Howells, 2004). Asian foodmarkets (and the related stocking of fish in natural fishbassins) have been reported as the rootcause of the invasion of Channa in the US. While most species can tolerate a wide range of water conditions, many fare poorly when water conditions deteriorate or undergo rapid changes (as in a massive waterchange). Bullseye Snakehead: Channa marulius Appearance: Air-breathing, torpedo-shaped fish with flattened head and toothed jaws; long anal and dorsal fins without spines; typically red eyes; body color darkens with age to deep brown with black blotches sometimes fringed with bright comma-shaped markings, and a red-orange eyespot (ocellus) near the base of the tail. When not enough space is offered, sometimes parents will attack each other. Before adulthood most Channa species hunt in groups. Some aquarist even specialize themselves by dedicating their large fishtank to the largest specimens. Abstract â Bullseye Snakehead Channa marulius was first found in south Florida in 2000 and has been rapidly expanding its geographic range. Channa marulius. fish, Channa (C.) marulius and Wallago (W.) attu, the static bioassay tests were carried out. It is also known as gozal fish, gazli, channa marulius etc. Florida's exotic freshwater fishes. To maintain a mature couple a very large aquarium is necessary. Cocking S, 2008. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Qureshi MR, 1965. They prefer an aquarium/pond with rocky bottom and a lot of open space to swim on. Brood sizes can range widely, from 350-3600 young; however, the typical brood size of C. marulius is approximately 500 young. Geological Survey Archive/U.S.G.S./Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US. Teeth are present on the pre-vomer but are absent on the palatines. Snakeheads are able to live in varying waterconditions. Similar to C. micropeltesÂ Channa marulioides is one of the few pelagic Snakeheads. Eggs hatch within 54 hours at 16°C to 26°C and within 30 hours at 28°C to 33°C (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). Karachi, Pakistan: Government of Pakistan Press, 1-61. See more ideas about snakehead fish, aquarium fish, freshwater fish. Place of Origin: India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Southern Nepal. In contrary to what is believed, Snakeheads are not known to leave the water for any reason other than making their way back to water after flooding. Mendis AS; Fernando CH, 1962. Discovery of several large Channa species in waterbassins in the US Â made big news. Freshwater pH. Shafland PL; Gestring KB; Stanford MS, 2007. Juveniles of both species may have a series of dark blotches along the sides; however, in C. marulius, they are margined posteriorly and posterodorsally by a series of white scales. Donât feed the fish beef or chicken meat. Please try again later. Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822) Accepted Name Bullseye Snakehead Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Perciformes > Channidae > Channa > Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822) 0. Florida Scientist, 71:220-242. Scientific name: Channa Marulius. Feeding habits: Primarily a daytime feeder (Ng and Lim, 1990). Most of the species will quickly empty a general community tank with smaller fish. Amongst specialist aquarists Channa is a popular -oddball- aquariumfish. Fish will bite when they are handled and have been identified as traumatogenic (FishBase, 2006). They exhibit a broadly flattened head, with eyes localized anteriorly, in a dorsolateral position. Scientific name: Channa Marulius. a.cage culture b.pen culture c.integrated fish farming d.none. Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Malaysia, Sumatra, Indonesia, The media had been set up to legitimate unpopulair activities preventing the species from spreading to other watersystems (like emptying or poisoning waterbassins). Channa marulius Great snakehead. The species is listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service on the federally regulated list of injurious fishes. Especially C. Argus is considered to have the ability to double its population within 15 months, and be able to flourish in most (fresh) waterconditions. Nichols JT, 1943. Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae) - A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment, Circular 1251., USA: US Geological Survey. 8-12 °d Stocking Ratio. A lot of snakeheads are lost by beginner or advanced aquarist because of massive waterchanges and too rapid tank introduction. Some larger Snakehead species however have more pelagic life style and are far more active swimmers. Some of the lipids from these meat source cannot be properly metabolised by the fish and may cause excess fat deposits and even organ degeneration. Description. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC). Some rare and attractively marked species (like C. Barca) belong to the most expensive aquariumfish in the trade. It tends to inhabit waters with submerged aquatic vegetation and is usually found only in deep pools in rivers and occasionally in lakes. Parents will show extensive and enduring parental care. Populations in Southeast Asia are now regarded as separate species. C. striata and C. gachua peaked in early night hours, and C. punctata at dusk (Munshi and Hughes, 1992). Currently, in absence of natural toppredators the larger channa species are considered invasive and destructive to the local ecosystem. Ophicephalus marulioides Bleeker, 1851 Etymology. Since 2002 in most states of the US it is forbidden to possess living Channa species. 150-180 cm (59.1-70.9") sg. Eagle Trace Golf Course, Broward County. 2.5 lakh, he said. 1325 Litres (350 US G.) Size. Snakeheads are highly aggressive apex predators which have the ability to travel overland to exploit new bodies of water. Channa must breath air otherwise they drown, which requires an airgap between the waterlevel and the cover of the tank. Oxygen consumption has been documented to be highest at night. The [â¦] The fish oil can have positive effects on cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Ecol, 38(6):1212-1219. Islamabad, Pakistan: Pakistan Museum of Natural History, 325-333. Snakeheads - their biology and culture. They prefer an aquarium/pond with rocky bottom and a lot of open space to swim on. In a study of gut content analysis (n=127), C. marulius was identified as consuming conspecifics, bluegill, mosquitofish, warmouth, peacock bass, lizards, Bufo toads, small turtles, a rat and a snake (Cocking, 2008). Kottelat M, 2001. http://fisc.er.usgs.gov/Snakehead_circ_1251/html/channa_marulius.html, CABI, Undated. C. marulius is highly valued throughout Asia as a food item and the potential for spread beyond its native range exists as a result of interest by the live food fish industry (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). They are able to slither out of the water for short periods, making the importation of many Channa species illegal. Canada currently does not have federal regulations to prohibit the import of potentially invasive species. Scientific Name : Channa marulius; Physical Characteristics. Remarks: Occurs in sluggish or standing water in canals, lakes, and swamps (Ref. The species has been known to be cultured for the live food fish industry and is â¦ It is found in the vicinities of the Pechpparai, Chittar, Manimuthar, Bhvani and Mettur dams of Tamil Nadu Thenmalai, Neyyar, and near to the Idukki dams of Kerala. C. marulius is not recommended to be housed in aquaria with other species of fishes or with conspecifics once they have attained 25 cm in length due to their predatory nature (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). http://fisc.er.usgs.gov/Snakehead_circ_1251/circ_1251_courtenay.pdf. Ahmad MU; Khumar F; Anwar S; Siddiqui MS, 1990. Colombo, Sri Lanka: WHT Publications Ltd., 198 pp. However, six years following the invasion of C. marulius into natural water bodies in Broward County in Florida, USA, significant changes in native fish community composition have yet to be observed (Hardin, 2007). Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Channa are predatory fish that prey in the juvenile stadium on plankton, insects and snails. In T. Uyeno, R. Arai, T. Taniuchi and K. Matsuura (eds.) It is native to the Kabul and Indus Rivers in Pakistan (Mirza, 1999), many drainages of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, southern Nepal (Gandaki, Koshi, and Karnali River basins), Myanmar, Thailand, Mekong basin of Laos and Cambodia, and southern China (Day, 1877; Nichols, 1943; Mendis and Fernando, 1962; Qureshi, 1965; Fernando and Indrassna, 1969; Pethiyagoda, 1991; Talwar and Jhingran, 1992; Rainboth, 1996; Kottelat, 2001a; USGS, 2008). Federal legislation exists in the United States to prevent the importation and transportation of all members of the family Channidae (the snakeheads) between the continental USA and its territories (Hoffman, 2002). Uncommon. Subject. Mostly however, the co-existence is temporarely: When a couple is formed often all other fish are hunted and killed. Channa marulius ara (Deraniyagala, 1945) Ophicephalus grandinosus Cuvier, 1831 Ophicephalus leucopunctatus Sykes, 1839 Ophicephalus marulius Hamilton, 1822 Ophicephalus marulius ara Deraniyagala, 1945 Ophicephalus sowara Cuvier, 1831 Ophiocephalus aurolineatus Day, 1870 Ophiocephalus grandinosus Cuvier, 1831 Ophiocephalus marulius ara Deraniyagala, 1945 … Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae) - A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment. p. 886-898. At present, no federal or provincial legislation exists in Canada regarding the importation, transportation or possession of snakehead fishes. Channa marulius: 272: 30175: Khuda-Bukhsh, A.R., T. Chanda and A. Barat, 1986. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Builds floating nest of â¦ Coral Springs canal nr. Additionally, its long, serpentine body form provides the opportunity for C. marulius to 'wiggle' and disperse overland between waterbodies not connected by aquatic channels, further increasing its potential for invasiveness. Most have blotches of dark scales flecked in white along the side of the body. Average Adult Fish Size: 70 inches / 180 cm. Aggression level increases somewhat when specimens of Channa marulioides become sxually mature. C. marulius was introduced into residential ponds and adjoining canals in Tamarac, Broward County, Florida, USA and by 2001, became established as a reproducing population (Howells, 2004). However, C. marulius has also been observed as part of the live food fish industry in New York City (Leo Smith, pers. Most have blotches of dark scales flecked in white along the side of the body. It is reported that some Channa species possess anti-inflammatory properties. Bangkok, Thailand: Proceedings of the 29th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 561-574. Aquarists have very diverse experiences when it comes to combining Channa species with other robust fish species. These fish do not require daily feeding as commonly believed. More information is needed on water chemistry parameters and required temperatures, as well as a quantification of impacts to native populations. C. marulius is highly valued throughout Asia as a food item and the potential for spread beyond its native range exists as a result of interest by the live food fish industry (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). Feeding habits: There are few studies of feeding habits of snakeheads. C. marulius has the ability to significantly impact the function of ecosystems and foodwebs among native biotic communities. 15% waterchange a week should be ok. Good filtration is necessary, otherwise the amount of food will deteriorate the water fast. The snakehead fishes of the Indo-Malayan Region. Feeding regime [edit | edit source] Feed sparingly once or twice a day. For a large snakehead this species is relatively peaceful combining them with other large fishspecies seems possible. Aquaculture. 2002, in Courtenay and Williams, 2004). Channa: from the Latin channe, used to refer to an unspecified species of sea perch. A Channa that is intimidated will hide, try to escape the tank and refuse to eat. Large scales are observed on the top of the head and are similar to the cephalic plates observed in many species of snake worldwide. This species has been introduced to the United States and has been found in many residential lakes and canals in Broward County, Florida (USA) (Fuller, 2011). Scales are absent from the gular regions of the head. Carnivorous. Comparative distribution and invasion risk of snakehead (Channidae) and Asian carp (Cyprinidae) species in North America. New York, USA: American Museum of Natural History, 1-322. Some larges snakeheads however live a more pelagic life and are far more active swimmers. It is thought that this introduction is the result of an intentional release of live individuals by the public from either the aquarium or live food fish industry. Hoffman P, 2002. Â National Geographic launched a somewhat more fact based documentairy,Â Invasion of the Snakeheads,Â introducing the name âFishzillaâ. They spend a lot of time hovering in midwater or resting on the bottom within cover as ambush predators. Eagle Trace Golf Course, Broward County. The most distinctive marking is the black spot rimmed with orange near the base of the tail fin, known as an eye-spot or ocellus. Before adulthood most Channa species hunt in groups. The diploid number of chromosomes for C. marulius is 44 (Donsakul and Magtoon, 1991). When buying them, you should consider the attainable final size. Newly introduced fish are often killed, even when they do not fit their mouth. It is entirely absent from Indonesia and Malaysia and may have been replaced by C. maruloides. The species is an ambush predator and will wait until prey items arrive in the vicinity before attacking. Channa: from the Latin channe, used to refer to an unspecified species of sea perch. It is reported that C. marulius is highly suitable for cage aquaculture and, when reared with tilapia, has been found to be an effective tool to restrict population overgrowth and, therefore, minimizes stunted growth patterns among the more desirable tilapia (Ebanasar, 1995). Feeding habits - Few studies analyze the feeding habits of snakeheads.For those species studied, however, snakehead fry feed mostly on zooplankton following yolk-sac resorption. Munshi and Hughes (1992) attributed these rhythms to evolution in swamp ecosystems (i.e., â¦ Snakeheads (family Channidae). The Channa marulius has red eyes and is gold-tinted brown to pale gray in younger fish while older fish are generally dark brown with large black blotches. This enables widespread dispersal of a highly fecund population of an invasive species with significant impacts at all trophic levels. In contract to most Snakeheads this species is quite docile and tolerant to specimens of the same species or other large fish. C. marulius is reported to be the largest species of the family Channidae, often reaching 30 cm in 1 year, and a total length of 120 to 122 cm (Bardach et al., 1972; Talwar and Jhingran, 1992). Florida, USA. Many medium sized channa (30-60 cm) Â should be combined with relatively fast swimming and robust fish, like larger cyprinids. Biochem. Karyomorphology and evolution in some Indian hillstream fishes with particular reference to polyploidy in some species. Â The general opinion is that changes are best if the Snakeheads are Â not fully grown and the other fish are already settled. Injurious Wildlife Species., USA: Department of Interior, United States Fish and Wildlife Service (online). Some specimens even accept dried foods although these should never form the staple diet. Channa are predatory fish that prey in the juvenile stadium on plankton, insects and snails. Adult snakeheads feed mostly on other fishes but will eat crustaceans, frogs, smaller reptiles, and the larger species of snakehead â¦ When placed in direct sunlight, however, they Â dessicate and perish in minutes to several hours. a.carps ... Fishes feeding on single type of feed are known as. Channa catching barca in the area because it requires great courage to bet their lives. Channa marulia, Ophicephalus marulius, Ophicephalus grandinosus, Ophicephalus leucopunctatus. Channa are not active swimmers and, when not feeding, tend to move only when surfacing for air. to JD Williams, 2001) indicated that C. marulius, as currently recognized, is possibly a species complex (Courtenay and Williams, 2004). In: Recent advances in aquaculture. comm. In this case the male is the mouthbrooder of the fertilized eggs and the fry. Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) £59.95 great size feeding very well. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide, The bullseye snakehead (C. marulius) is native to a wide range of countries in southern Asia and India and has been introduced to Broward County in Florida, USA (. While they grow the larger species switch towards a menu that consists mainly on fish, frogs, crabs, shrimps, small aquatic mammals and birds. Some Snakeheads display considerable changes in colour pattern while growing. This feature is not available right now. Snakeheads are large predators that feed on all sorts of animals, including small mammals. Big Cypress National Wildlife Refuge; reported, alien, Average temp. of coolest month > 18Â°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually, Average temp. Young C. marulius are facultative airbreathers but this behaviour is obligatory among adult fish. Channa have gills to breath water like most other fish. Usually found only in deep pools in rivers and occasionally in lakes. Head is slightly prostrate. they're hella picky though... these days i'm feeding them frozen bloodworms, but i dont think it's giving them much of variety as far as vits and mins. All snakeheads are capable of powerful bursts of acceleration. Reston, Virginia, USA: US Geological Survey. In aquaria, snakeheads are aggressive and have been known to break through canopies and escape from the tank. The fish genetic resources of India. FishBase. These types of fish eat all kinds of food. From 15 million years ago end on, the animals have spread by the expanding intertropical climate zone to parts of Europe, Africa and larger parts of Asia. Indo-Pacific Fish Biology: proceedings of the Second International Conference on Indo-Pacific fishes. The only other species of Channa which is characterized as having a large ocellus at the base of the upper lobe of the caudal fin is C. maruiloides. The northern snakehead fish (Channa argus) has been identified as an invasive aquatic fish across the United States. The stocking density of striped murrel is about 10000/ha, at the feeding rate of 5 percent of the body. Order: Perciformes Family: Channidae The whole body of this fish is covered with scales. They are often found in deep, clear water with sand or rocky substrate (Talwar and Jhingran, 1992). The farming and husbandry of freshwater and marine organisms., xii + 868pp. Munshi and Hughes (1992) cited Banerji (1974) that fry of Channa punctata feed on phytoplankton.As juveniles, they feed on insect larvae, small crustaceans, and fry of other fishes (Munshi and Hughes, 1992). This fish has a voracious appetite. Unlike many other airbreathing fishes, channa have a series of cavities in the rear section of their head. Management options for population control within smaller water bodies are dependent upon the amount of aquatic vegetation, accessibility of the water body and the effectiveness of the control techniques employed (Hoffman, 2002). Often local markets are stocked anyday of the year with large amounts of Snakeheads. Parents defend their young with force. Channa marulius juvenile. 63.Whichaqua farming technology is most suitable for rural area. Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822). Some species are bound to a subtropical climatezone. Â Several media painted a picture of Piranha like myths about monsterfish that empty a lake, move on to the next to empty, hunting on dogs and children in the meantime on land. In fact, a fasting period for proper digestion is a healthy way to avoid internal bacterial growth and constipation which may likely result in bloating. Young snakeheads need feeding on a daily basis while they are growing, but once they reach 30 cm, 2-4 feeds a week will do fine. The introduction of the species into Broward County in Florida, USA, can likely be attributed to the aquarium trade (Fuller, 2011).