middle east timeline 20th century
A 32-country international coalition, led by the United States and including some Arab forces, gathers 500,000 soldiers in Saudi Arabia in preparation for a military action to push the Iraqi forces out of Kuwait. 1967: Congo (Zaïre): The United States sent three military transport aircraft with crews to provide the Congo central government with logistical support during a revolt. A group of young Egyptian officers calling itself the “Free Officers Movement,” led by Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser and General Muhammad Naguib, overthrow the monarchy, ending the reign of the family dynasty established in 1841 by Muhammad Ali Pasha. Visit the web page for the UN oil-for food Program here. Egyptian feminist Huda Sha’rawi founds the Egyptian Feminist Union. Lebanese- American poet Khalil Gibran (1883-1931) publishes The Prophet, his most famous work. The Middle East. This timeline tries to compile dates of important historical events that happened in or that led to the rise of the Middle East. King Faisal, who had played a vital role in the implementation of the 1973 Arab oil embargo, is succeeded by his brother, King Khalid. – Tunisia gains independence from France on March 20th. He sets up a Council of the Revolution, which will run the country for more than a decade. Against this background, the Arabs launch a spontaneous rebellion against British rule and the increasing Zionist presence in Palestine. As the timeline below, we are introducing some remarkable events at Europe and Middle East during the Medieval periods. Abdelaziz Bouteflika is elected President of Algeria on April 15th. linea del tiempo generación de las computadoras. Hamas decides to retaliate by beginning a campaign of suicide bombings against Israelis. Timeline of the Middle East in the 20th Century, music, popular culture and the performing arts. A printable version of this timeline is available for download at the bottom of this page. Egypt is shunned by its fellow Arab states and expelled from the Arab League, whose headquarters are consequently moved to Tunis. At the time, Jews are approximately half the Palestinian population and own about 7% of the land. Public timelines; Search; Sign in; Sign up; 20th Century in Middle East Timeline created by harrypotterfan43. The Six-Day War , also known as the June War, 1967 Arab-Israeli War, or Third Arab-Israeli War, was fought between June 5 and 10, 1967, by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria. – In Morocco, a major constitutional reform adds a House of Counselors (upper house) to the parliament and alters the structures of representation and election to make them more accountable. The post-World War II era marks a shift in the emigration patterns of Arabs to the United States. As a result of the Accords, Egypt begins to receive economic and military aid from the United States, as both a reward for the peace treaty and a compensation for the billions of dollars in economic aid that Egypt used to receive from the oil-rich Arab countries. – Algeria wins independence from France after 132 years of colonial rule and a seven and a half year war which left 1.5 million Algerians dead and the country devastated. 17th Century. The Islamic Caliphate is effectively abolished as the new republic embarks on a program of modernization and secularization. – Birth of Mahmoud Darwish, a leading poet of the Palestinian resistance. This course surveys the history of the Middle East, from the end of the 19th century to the present. – King Hussein of Jordan, viewing the PLO’s increasing power and influence among his Palestinian subjects as a threat to his regime, orders his forces to attack Palestinian militants in refugee camps. – Raï music, formerly banned in Algeria, begins to get radio play in that country. The renunciation of Turkish claims over non-Turkish territories of the Ottoman Empire is formalized in the Treaty of Lausanne. The declaration contradicts the terms of the Sykes-Picot Agreement and ignores the earlier pledges of Arab independence made to al-Sharif Hussein. – In May, Libya sends a delegation to Israel for pilgrimage to the al-Aqsa mosque. The Oslo II accords are signed in December at the White House in Washington, D.C. by Chairman Yasser Arafat and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in the presence of President Bill Clinton. At its greatest extent under Darius I stretches from the Aegean Sea and Libya to the Indus Valley. The international community condemns the invasion, and on August 6th strict economic sanctions are imposed. – King Hussein of Jordan dies of cancer after forty-six years of rule. – Abd al-Rahman Youssoufi, a socialist and opposition leader, is appointed Prime Minister in Morocco. Published. – Rawiya Attiya is elected as Egypt’s first female member of parliament, after women in Egypt have had the right to vote since the year before. – Hussein Ibn Talal, grandson of the assassinated King Abdullah, is declared King of Jordan at age sixteen. 550-330 BC - Achaemenid dynasty rules the first Persian Empire. On the Syrian front, the Israeli forces destroy the Syrian defenses and capture the strategic Golan Heights, which will later be annexed to Israel. Palestine is to be an international zone. Jordan got its independence in the 25th May 1946 , and since that time it became the Hashimite kingdom of Jordan. – Birth of the enormously popular female Lebanese singer Fairuz . Hizbullah quickly develops into a powerful political organization whose influence among poor Shi’ite Muslims in Lebanon is increased through the group’s benevolent social and economic services. A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker. Public timelines; Search; Sign in; Sign up; The 20th century in the Middle East Timeline created by Hamzeh Arabiyat. – Oum Kalthoum, the most important singer in the history of Arabic music, dies. A chaotic withdrawal of what remains of the Egyptian army is hastily arranged. Iraq is shaken by a pro-German coup. These arrests follow the first major clash between the Islamists and the government, when the army had to intervene to end a long sit-in organized by the FIS in support of early presidential elections and a change in the new electoral districting law, which was believed to have been tailored to benefit the FLN. Britain and France emerge victorious, but the Arab dream of independence is dealt a severe blow as the colonization of Arab lands continues with more vehemence. At a special meeting of the UN General Assembly convened at Geneva, Arafat publicly accepts UN Resolutions 242 and 338, implicitly recognizing the State of Israel. – Moroccan King Hassan II orders “The Green March” in November. He was the second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death. The armed clashes over border disputes with the Saudis will continue for decades. Mesopotamia. 1932 - Tel Aviv Museum of Art established. 16th Century. The National Concord is approved by popular referendum and thousands of armed rebels surrender. Five Syrian fighter jets are shot down and Syria asks Egypt for military support. The Camp David Accords will result in the 1979 signing of a treaty stipulating Israel’s return of the Sinai territory to Egypt. Well, it's easy as toast! – In Iraq, The Revolutionary Command Council takes power in a coup. However, the Arab revolt he calls for in 1916 receives support only among the few tribes loyal to him. – Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser seizes power in Egypt. – Sheikh Ahmad Yasin, a Palestinian refugee in Gaza, founds Mujamah (Congregation) and campaigns against the PLO and its secular nationalism. 30,000 Syrian troops, initially sent to protect the Christian militias, become permanently stationed in strategic locations in Lebanon. The Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS) is founded in Gaza to support and sustain the Intifada in the Israeli-occupied Palestinian territories. He returns on January 16th. The Arab Revolt (1916–1918) . World War I begins. He immediately annexes neighboring lands in what is now Saudi Arabia. 1938 - Tel Aviv Zoo opens. The Sultan refuses to do so. – Crown Prince Farouq of Egypt ascends to the throne following the death of his father, King Fouad. – Transjordan is renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. – Algerian novelist and filmmaker Assia Djebar publishes her first novel, La Soif (The Thirst) . – France negotiates a draft treaty of independence with both Syria and Lebanon. 1941 - The Shah's pro-Axis allegiance in World War II … Israeli ground troops destroy the Egyptian military units in the Sinai and advance on the Suez Canal. – Twenty-nine Palestinians are murdered in the Hebron Mosque by a Jewish extremist. In spite of these clashes and tension, on December 26th Algeria holds the first balloting of its first multiparty elections since independence. France and the United States are critical of the accord, the main purpose of which is to boost the Libyan and Moroccan positions in regional political maneuverings. – A declaration of independence for a Palestinian state is issued in November by the 19th session of the Palestine National Council (PNC). By the spring of 1948, more than 400,000 Arabs will have fled their land or been expelled. The assassination is seen as a consequence of Sadat’s peace treaty with Israel, as well as his “open door” liberal economic policies, which in the minds of Islamists render Egypt vulnerable to negative Western influences. The Sultan is exiled in August, and Moulay Ben Arafa is installed on the throne. On June 2nd, American Senator John F. Kennedy delivers a speech before the Committee on Foreign Relations of the U.S. Congress in which he calls for the independence of Algeria. The international sanctions against Iraq are modified in August and September in order to allow Iraq to sell oil for the purpose of acquiring food. The potential threat of a regime overthrow by religious militants, as in Iran, prompts President Mubarak to adopt martial law and to use military tribunals to try Sadat’s assassins and their sympathizers. The action is again a failure, due primarily to local resistance and to active French and American opposition to the Libyan effort. The Arabian kingdoms of Najd and Hijaz are unified into modern Saudi Arabia. See the article “Frontiers in North Africa” for more about events leading up to this agreement and its consequences in the region. In Egypt, the political situation is rapidly deteriorating. Boutros Ghali, the Coptic Prime Minister of Egypt, is assassinated. Their violent campaign is met with an equally brutal military response. Israel rejects the resolution and declares Jerusalem its eternal capital. It will gradually become a political group and agitate for social and political reforms in Egypt in accordance with a strict interpretation of Islam, as well as for the end of British occupation. Ahmad Ben Bella, one of the leaders of the Algerian revolution, is declared president of a new regime characterized by populism and a socialist orientation. Los acontecimientos más importantes de la célula. After the government forbids a March 9th lecture on Amazigh poetry by writer Mouloud Mammeri at the Tizi Ouzou University in the Kabyle region, people take to the streets in a massive protest march, the first of its kind in the history of independent Algeria. For the Palestinians it is an annual day of commemoration of the displacement that followed the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948. – Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin are both awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to reach a peace agreement. – President Houari Boumediene of Algeria dies of illness. Faysal, the son of al-Sharif Hussein, becomes King of Iraq with the support of Great Britain, which controls the new country under the mandate system. – Hassan II becomes king of Morocco after the death of his father, Muhammad V. Imam Muhammad al-Badr is overthrown by Yemeni army officers less then a week after assuming power following his father’s death. A series of military victories moves the Taliban, a radical Islamist movement in Afghanistan, closer to power in Kabul. – Yasser Arafat addresses the General Assembly of the United Nations, which recognizes the Palestinians’ right to sovereignty and grants the PLO the status of Observer in the General Assembly. – The Arab Maghrib Union (UMA), which is meant to be an integration scheme involving Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco, Libya and Tunisia, is established. See the entire history of the Middle East mapped out every year. The agreement effectively divided the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire outside the Arabian peninsula into areas of future British and French control or influence. These actions are based on the Iraqi claim that Kuwait was historically part of Iraq before the British created it artificially as a means of protecting their interests in the Arabian Peninsula. – Israeli troops seize the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt. See, also, Arabia 1989-1995 for the effect of the war on the countries of the Arabian Penninsula. See video here. Prior to the 1952 coup, Sadat had been engaged in violent activities against the British presence in Egypt, and was imprisoned for his role in the assassination of Amin Othman. The PLO is drawn into the conflict when Maronite militias attack Palestinian refugee camps in and around Beirut. Under the Balfour Declaration, the British Cabinet promises to facilitate the creation of a Jewish “national home” in Palestine while protecting the civil and religious rights of the area’s existing population of approximately 690,000, made up of 535,000 Muslims, 70,000 Christians (most of whom are Arabs), and 85,000 Jews. The Wafd party wins overwhelmingly in Egypt’s first elections under the British-sponsored monarchy, and embarks on a program of legal and social secularization. This is explained in more detail in Frontiers in North Africa. -France determines that the Druze and the ‘Alawites should each have a separate state within the Syrian mandate, effectively cutting the two groups off from political participation in greater Syria. – King Hassan II of Morocco dies after a thirty-eight year reign. Share. The oldest US mosque still in existence is built in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. – Birth of the Lebanese lutist Marcel Khalifa, one of the most prominent composers and performers of modern Arabic music. With a name that means “revival,” and a secular and pan-Arabist ideology, the party’s objective is to inspire a cultural and political renaissance among Arabs everywhere so as to restore the Arab civilization to its prior glory and free it from foreign encroachment. The Islamist party, the FIS, seems to be on its way to a landslide victory; the second balloting is scheduled for January 1992. Although the end of his rule was marked by a few steps towards political opening and acknowledgement of human rights, King Hassan had largely ruled Morocco with a strict authoritarianism, crushing political dissent and allowing only occasional truces with the opposition. , – war breaks out in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo later Bangladesh ) erupt into civil war 1,000 Egyptians and dead! 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