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The male deposits a spermatophore, which is picked up by the female as she passes over it. Young specimens are bright red with distinctive black dots but in older individuals the black dots coalesce giving them a dark or cloudy red … In the Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders), many members respire through their skin and the lining in their mouths. [8] Generally, however, adult red salamanders mate annually and engage in primitive courting activities. [9] Its predators include birds and small carnivores such as skunks and raccoons. 1920. [4] Red salamanders are normally not found near large streams, but instead near smaller water sources. You can see a pic of it as an profile picture on my profile page. Abitudini di Northern Red Salamandre The Northern Red Salamander, che si distingue anche per il suo nome scientifico Pseudotriton ruber ruber, si trova nella parte orientale della Ohio, ma esistono le colonie più piccole intorno Cincinnati. They are absent from coastal plains south of Virginia and the Florida peninsula.Â. I keep one Northern Red Salamander. [15] This hypothesis, however, was heavily criticized due to significant size differences in the organisms and the differences in the species’ times of foraging ( i.e. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998. Northern Red Salamander. When threatened—most commonly by birds, skunks and raccoons—these salamanders assume a defensive posture. The four subspeciesof P. ruber are found across the eastern United States, occupying streams through open areas such as fields and meadows, as well as aquatic areas through forested areas and mountains. Red salamanders display courtship behaviors from spring through fall. Washington, DC 20013. P. ruber mainly at night and the red eft mainly during the day). [4] The southern red salamander (P. r. vioscai) is often purplish- to salmon-colored and normally has white spots on its head. Saved by Kara L. 1.2k. Dunn. The female then straddles the male’s tail and the pair engages in a straddled “walk” until the male deposits sperm on the substrate. La salamandra è caratterizzato da un corpo rob Join a citizen science project, such as FrogWatch or. Description: A small (2-4 inches) dark salamander with a reddish or orange stripe down the back from the head to tail. In Alabama, this form occurs in the north-eastern portion of the state. 1968. Discover How Long Northern red salamander Lives. There is also a “leadback” phase where the body is uniformly dark. This subspecies is found from southern South Carolina to southeast Louisiana and southwest Kentucky. Live arrival guaranteed when you buy a salamander from us! Aug 21, 2015 - This Pin was discovered by Bogdan Krol. [13] Maintaining species diversity is an important part of conservation, and to prevent the loss of salamander diversity as a whole, it is important to have some type of management plan in place to prevent P. ruber from escalating from a low conservation status to a higher level of concern. Northern Red Salamanders can be found in or near clear, cool running water, especially spring-fed streams in wooded or open areas (Conant 1975, IUCN 2014). Wiki User Answered . All subspecies of P. ruber occupy moist environments such as under moss and stones near clear water sources such as streams or springs. Find resources to engage learners in grades preK-12 with science, the natural world, wildlife and conservation. Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) Photos by J.D. The northern red salamander, P. r. ruber, is characterized as being red or reddish-orange with numerous black spots down its back. The correlation of lunglessness in salamanders with a mountain brook habitat. Diet of larval Red Salamanders (, Bruce, R.C. Organ, J.A., and D.J. Find the perfect northern red salamander stock photo. The Northern dusky salamander was already assessed as endangered when the Endangered Species Act took effect in 2008. Brandon, R.A., and J. E. Huheey. In central New York adults spent most of the year beneath stones, sticks, and logs within 2 to 30 … Normally, amphibians of this species are bright reddish or orangish with black spots. Saved from flickr.com Young specimens are bright red with distinctive black dots but in older individuals the black dots coalesce giving them a dark or cloudy red … [2] Red salamanders eat insects, earthworms, spiders, small crustaceans, snails and smaller salamanders. 2016, Petranka 1998). Petranka, J.W. [4] The Blue Ridge red salamander is found in elevations to more than 5,000 ft (1,500 m) in the southern part of the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. This subspecies is the most common and can be fou… [4] Another distinguishing characteristic of P. ruber is the appearance of numerous irregular black spots down its back. It was designated the state amphibian in 2015 following the introduction of the idea to the House of Delegates by eighth graders of Romney Middle School. Throughout central and western Alabama, the Northern and Southern Red Salamanders intergrade, appearing morphologically intermediate. By becoming a member, you'll help the Zoo save species and get great benefits for you and your family each time you visit! Saved from forums.pocketgems.com. [8][10] The red salamander generally lays eggs in the fall and hatching season takes place in the late fall and winter. It is very similar in appearance to the mud salamander. Collins.Peterson Field Guides: Reptiles and Amphibians.New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1998. Because, like most amphibians, red salamanders require clean, clear water, they are susceptible to any activity that impacts water quality, such as logging, mining and development. Sign up now! Amphibians and Reptiles of Pennsylvania and the Northeast. P. ruber is most similar in appearance to the mud salamander (P. montanus), but can be distinguished by the difference in size and number of spots running down the dorsum and also by the difference in the color of the iris. Like the dusky salamander, it is a member of the lungless salamander family. This Northern Red Salamander was rescued from the swiming pool (the reason it is so clean). ← Newer Record Older Record → Northern Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) Record Information. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Share your thoughts, experiences and the tales behind the art. MRC 5516 The “straddle-walk” approximately lasts two minutes and once the sperm is deposited, the female picks up the sperm cap as she moves over it and then they separate". Bruce.1992.Lunglessness in Plethodontid Salamanders is Consistent with the Hypothesis of a Mountain Stream Origin: A Response to Ruben and Boucot. Older adults loose some of their brightness and look sometimes even purplish. Four subspecies are recognized: Blue Ridge Red Salamander (P. r. nitidus), Northern Red Salamander (P. r. ruber), Black-chinned Red Salamander (P. r. schencki), and Southern Red Salamander (P. r. vioscai). [8], Overall the red salamander is common and widespread,[1] but locally it has declined because of habitat loss and it is listed as an endangered species in Indiana.[2]. Members of this genus include only the red salamander and the mud salamander. "312 IAC 9-5-4: Endangered species of reptiles and amphibians", http://www.uga.edu/srelherp/salamanders/pserub.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Red_salamander&oldid=933101416, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 December 2019, at 00:09. [14] The coloration of the red salamander has been hypothesized to mimic that of the red eft stage of the eastern newt (Notophythalmus viridescens) which emits a powerful neurotoxin in their skin. Individuals become darker with age and spots may fuse together to make the salamander … Description: This large, stout salamander may reach lengths of 6-7 inches. Frogs of the United States and Canada. Both phases have a white and black “salt and pepper” speckled belly. Giant pandas are one of the most beloved species at the Zoo. Habitat: Spotted in a small stream under a rock. High resolution images (300DPI) available upon request. Red salamanders are equipped with a projectile tongue that extends and withdraws in just 11 milliseconds. The red salamander is found in the eastern area of the United States. The four subspecies of P. ruber are found across the eastern United States, occupying streams through open areas such as fields and meadows, as well as aquatic areas through forested areas and mountains. It inhabits wooded slopes in eastern North America, west to Missouri, south to North Carolina, and north from southern Quebec and the Maritime Provinces in Canada to Minnesota. They are stout-bodied and short-tailed (tail length about 80% of snout-vent length). Its skin is orange/red with random black spots. The northern red salamander is scientifically known as the Pseudotriton ruber. Northern Red Salamander Pseudotriton ruber ruber HM 311733 Northern Red Salamander Pseudotriton ruber ruber HM 310721 Northern Red Salamander Pseudotriton ruber ruber HM 309748 Most Observed By Some records may be hidden from the public. Turtles of the United States and Canada. Utah, USA, taken under controlled conditions; Northern Red Salamander. Eggs hatch in early winter. Red salamanders range in length from 4 to 7 inches (10 to 18 centimeters).Â. "A male approaches a female, rubbing his snout against her snout, cheeks, and chin. Each subspecies is similar in appearance with slight differences in size and coloration, but are found in different habitats. The Northern dusky salamander is usually gray to yellowish brown or dark brown and can reach about 6 to 14 cm in length. 1975. I tried putting two big tadpoles in with it butit ate them so I will never do that again. Discover How Long Northern red salamander Lives. OUR DATA: We use the most recent data from these primary sources: AnAge, UMICH, Max Planck, PanTHERIA, Arkive, UKC, AKC. Northern Red salamander hand sculpted from polymer clay and hand painted with acrylic paint set on a branch segment and accented with moss. Jul 14, 2016 - The Division of Wildlife’s mission is to conserve and improve fish and wildlife resources and their habitats for sustainable use and appreciation by all. The northern red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber ruber) is easy to identify. There are four subspecies of red salamander including the Southern, Northern, Black-chinned, and Blue Ridge red salamanders. Watch Queue Queue Share your thoughts, experiences and the tales behind the art. The underside is marked with black or brown spots; some younger individuals may have unmarked bellies. The male then moves his head and body under her chin and starts tail undulations. This frog belongs to the Plethodontidae endemic family. Your gift to the Giant Panda Fund supports critical research and conservation of the giant panda and its habitat. [12] Due to its semiaquatic nature, the red salamander remains in terrestrial environments until early spring then disperses to more aquatic sites. This subspecies is the most common and can be found from southern New York and Ohio to northeast Alabama, as well as the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Each subspecies is similar in appearance with slight differences in size and coloration, but are found in different habitats. 1972.The larval life of the Red Salamander, Cecala, K.K., S.J. Saved by Kara L. 1.2k. They lay between 30 and 130 eggs, which later hatch in early winter. Protect local waterways by using fewer pesticides when caring for your garden or lawn. They curl their bodies into a c-shape, wrapping their tails and hind limbs around to protect their head. Did you love what you learned about this animal? In regards to mating, males appear to not be aggressive towards one another, but do occasionally court other males as a means of sperm competition to get the other male to deposit spermatophores, giving them a better chance of successful mating over their competitors. Description: Red salamanders are one of the largest stream salamanders in our region (4 - 6 in; 10 -15 cm). Unlike the Mud Salamander, Red Salamanders occur at high elevations throughout Appalachia. Northern red salamanders can live up to 20 years. Smithsonian’s National Zoo & Conservation Biology Institute 3001 Connecticut Ave., NW Washington, DC 20008, PO Box 37012 This species differs it is slightly smaller and lacks black coloration on the tip of the tail and chin. Download this Northern Red Salamander photo now. Educational Activities You Can Do at Home, About the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, #PandaStory: A New Field Trip Destination. 9 10 11. This video is unavailable. [11] Feeding rates typically increase when water temperature is low and larger individuals feed more than smaller individuals. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Are you a student? No need to register, buy now! Since the red salamander prefers streams that are relatively pure, it is important to monitor human waste and pollution, since debris and silt could have adverse effects on their habitat, potentially causing a threat to survival. Around October, females lay an average of 70 eggs in hidden areas in and around streams. Is northern red salamander piosonous? Red salamanders are stout-bodied amphibians that range from purplish brown to crimson red, with dark spots and dashes along their backs. It is a picky eater and likes to eat in private. Like other salamanders, the red salamander seems to lose its color as it ages, becoming more darkly pigmented with less obscure patterns. Saved from forums.pocketgems.com. Dorcas. Saved from flickr.com Pseudotriton ruber. Northern Red Salamander (Pseudotriton r. ruber) Adult Northern Red Salamanders are stout-bodied, reach about 6 inches in length, and have a short, fleshy tail. Their projectile tongues can extend and return within milliseconds, and they possess toxic-secreting glands to repel predators. Organ. They live in a wide variety of moist habitats including meadows, mountains, and forests. [4] It can also be found in elevations to more than 5,000 ft (1,500 m) in the Blue Ridge Mountains. and R.C. Assessment Report. [3] Its sides and back vary in color from an orange-brownish tint to a bright red depending on its age. Using fertilizers sparingly, keeping storm drains free of litter and picking up after your pet can also improve watershed health. [16] More recently, red salamanders have been noted to have reduced palatability, so they are considered part of a Müllerian mimicry system in which all species are unpalatable and benefit from aposematic coloration. Northern Red Salamander on a rainy morning search. Four subspecies are currently recognized: northern Red Salamanders (P. r. ruber), Blue Ridge Red Salamanders (P. r. nitidus), blackchin Red Salamanders (P. r. … The red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae endemic to the eastern United States. Adult red salamanders will often live in burrows near streams and under rocks or logs. In return for the rescue, it agreed to sit still (momentarily) for me (it was actually warming up). Like the dusky salamander, it is a member of the lungless salamander family. They eat a variety of small invertebrates, including arachnids, worms and small insects. Salamanders of New York. Top Answer. These stout-bodied salamanders range from a purple-brown to a bright, crimson red with irregularly shaped, dark spots along their backs. Experimental study of mimicry in salamanders involving. In return for the rescue, it agreed to sit still (momentarily) for me (it was actually warming up). Northern red salamander - Pseudotriton ruber - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock 1979. [10] Larval red salamanders are generalists, eating whatever is available. Northern Red Salamander (Pseudotriton r. ruber) Adult Northern Red Salamanders are stout-bodied, reach about 6 inches in length, and have a short, fleshy tail. The Maryland Amphibian and Reptile Atlas. Red Lizard Chameleon Lizard Animals And Pets Baby Animals Cute Animals Reptiles And Amphibians Mammals Beautiful Creatures Animals Beautiful. This picture was extremely easy to take. They can live for up to 20 years. Female red salamanders are capable of storing sperm for long periods of time and may lay eggs several months after mating.Â, Females typically lay their eggs in the fall in streams attached to submerged rocks. The Northern Red Salamander is red to reddish orange and has numerous irregular black spots. Northern Red Salamander Ok, so one day, when i was really young, i found a little Northern Red Salamander in my back yard (we have a little creek that runs up from a river) and evr since i have wanted one for a pet. A male rubs his snout on a female's head and chin. Answer. Like all amphibians, they are cold-blooded, which means they have to regulate their body temperature using their outside surroundings. Amphibians and Reptiles of Pennsylvania and the Northeast. In Alabama, this particular form occurs uncommonly in and near the Lower Coastal Plain. Image of aquatic, herbtiles, plethodontidae - 12372229 [3], Pseudotriton ruber is a medium-large salamander, with adults ranging from 4.3 to 7.1 in (11–18 cm) in total length. An adult Northern Red Salamander. GotReptiles.com has several salamanders & Newts for sale including Tiger, Slimy, and more. The northern red salamander can be found in southern New York from the Hudson River west to southwestern New York, and south to Staten Island (NYS DEC 2009, Folt et al. Bruce, R.C. They have glands that produce a toxic secretion to repel predators. The red salamander is arguably one of the most primitive plethodontids, so is extremely valuable in understanding the links to ancestors and the evolutionary processes that have occurred. The red salamander has more spots and the spots also tend to be larger in size than those of the mud salamander. Typically, northern red salamanders can be found in many of the eastern states of the US, although not on the coast itself or … This Northern Red Salamander was rescued from the swiming pool (the reason it is so clean). The color and pattern vary with age. They are bright red in color and have extensive black spotting on the back and sides. [13] Overall this species is common and widespread,[1] but locally it has declined because of habitat loss and it is considered threatened in Indiana. At the Smithsonian's National Zoo, red salamanders are fed crickets, fruit flies, bean beetles, isopods, springtails and black worms. Their predators include raccoons, birds, skunks, and other forest carnivores. Red salamanders can extend and withdraw their projectile tongues in 11 milliseconds. And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features Amphibian photos available for quick and easy download. Conservation starts with you! The salamander's larval stage lasts for about two to three years.Â. Tweet; Description: Newly-metamorphosed juvenile. Younger individuals tend to exhibit brighter colors, while adults darken with age.Â. Northern Red Salamander larva [Pseudotriton ruber] left,Northern Spring Salamander larva [Gyrinophilus porphyriticus] right.Perry County,Pa.2-5-19.Spring Salamander larvae can take up to 4 … The red-backed salamander is a small terrestrial salamander, 5.7–10.0 cm (2.2–3.9 in) in total length (including tail), which usually lives in forested areas under rocks, logs, bark, and other debris. The red salamander's range extends from parts of northern New York to the Gulf Coast in elevations ranging from sea level to about 1500 feet. Robert Ferguson II 71 records: Kyle Loucks 52 records: Alexander Mason The northern red salamander, P. r. ruber, is characterized as being red or reddish-orange with numerous black spots down its back. The Northern Red Salamander is similar in shape, color and pattern to the Eastern Mud Salamander, but the iris of the Northern Red Salamander is usually yellow, not brown. The Salamander is an amphibian, and a vertebrate (it has a spine). This video is unavailable. Northern Red Salamander. [4] Also, the mud salamanders typically have a more contrasting dorsal and ventral coloration than the red salamanders that are more uniform in color.[4]. [8], Some important aquatic and terrestrial ecological aspects of this salamander include its diet, predators, and microhabitat preferences. Its habitats are temperate forests, small creeks, ponds, forests, temperate shrubland, rivers, intermittent rivers, freshwater, trees springs. While the species' overall population is thriving, several local populations are threatened by loss of habitat and pollution. Conant, R. and J.T. Northern red salamander Red salamanders are stout-bodied amphibians that range from purplish brown to crimson red, with dark spots and dashes along their backs. Photo by Todd Pierson. There is also a “leadback” phase where the body is uniformly dark. It is one of the most numerous salamanders throughout its range. Nothing extravagant or far-flung in this video, just some good old-fashioned local fauna from the Virginia hills. Description: A stout, large (4”-8”) salamander. Because they depend on damp habitats, their foraging range changes with the seasons, expanding during wet seasons and retracting in dry seasons. Willson unless otherwise noted . Coloration is bright red to reddish orange with many irregularly rounded, black spots with a somewhat lighter belly. [4] Similar in appearance to the northern red salamander is the Blue Ridge red salamander, P. r. nitidus. They also occasionally feed on smaller salamanders. Organize or attend a stream, river, lake or other waterway cleanup in your area to preserve aquatic habitats for local species. Spots tend to run together on older individuals. It eats earthworms and spends most of … It is a bright red with black spots and its eyes are a bright yellow. It is a bright red with black spots and its eyes are a bright yellow. [10] The longer larval period ensures that transformation occurs when the salamanders are much larger than other species of salamanders and typically have a short juvenile period, maturing quickly. Although the red salamander is brilliantly colored and has many distinguishing features, it is sometimes difficult to tell species apart. [8] Adults often live in burrows along streams and in other moist environments such as under logs and rocks along the forest floor. Females are capable of long-term sperm storage and may not lay eggs for months after mating. West Virginia designated the northern red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) as the official state amphibian in 2015; Romney Middle School eighth grade "West Virginia Studies" class introduced the idea. What it looks like. When was Northern two-lined salamander created? Red Salamander, Pseudotriton ruber Found throughout TN except in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain and most of the Central Basin. [9] Adult red salamanders, like their larvae, are generalists and tend to feed on invertebrates, as well as small amphibians. The red salamander is considered a species of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List. Courtship between males and females begins in spring and continues through autumn. Not a member? Commonly Confused Species: Northern two-lined salamander, Four-toed salamander. 1978. [9] Larval growth rates differ depending on the temperature of the water and tend to be higher in the warmer months when water temperature is higher. Commonly Confused Species: Northern two-lined salamander, Four-toed salamander. Huheey. Northern two-lined salamander was created in 1818. OUR DATA: We use the most recent data from these primary sources: AnAge, UMICH, Max Planck, PanTHERIA, Arkive, UKC, AKC. Red salamanders generally live in springs or streams during the winter and then disperse to and from these sites in the fall and spring. Prints of Northern red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber ruber), aquatic in winter, and in summer found under bark... #20119546 Framed Prints, Posters, Canvas, Puzzles, Metal, Photo Gifts and Wall Art The red salamander, as a member of the family Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders), lacks lungs and respires through its skin. Throughout central and western Alabama, the Northern and Southern Red Salamanders … [10] The larval period varies between 27 and 31 months and then metamorphosis takes place in the spring and early summer of the third year. [9], Other important behavioral aspects of P. ruber include its defensive mechanisms. These salamanders are aquatic and terrestrial. They are stout-bodied and short-tailed (tail length about 80% of snout-vent length). [12][13] Courtship between two red salamanders involves: They also have glands that produce a toxic secretion to deter predators. [8] Females typically lay eggs in the fall or early winter in headwater streams, and have very well-hidden nests. Older adults loose some of their brightness and look sometimes even purplish. Beachy, C.K. 2007. They prefer to live on land during the summer and can often be found a fair distance from water. and E.R. [7] The red salamander is further classified as a member of the genus Pseudotriton. In regard to eye color, the red salamander's iris is a gold-like tint, whereas the mud salamander's iris is brown. Older adults can be orangish to purplish brown with enlarged and fused spots that may be less distinct as an individual ages giving it a murky purplish brown color. 2015/01/02 - Northern Red Salamander- Pseudotriton ruber. Northern Red Salamander Relative palatability, defensive behavior, and mimetic relationships of red salamanders (, Howard, R.R. Northern Red salamander hand sculpted from polymer clay and hand painted with acrylic paint set on a branch segment and accented with moss. Northern red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber ruber) one of a group of salamanders that lacks lungs and respires through their skin. Both phases have a white and black “salt and pepper” speckled belly. Northern Red Salamander. Courtship behavior of the Red Salamander, Brandon, R.A., Labanick, G.N., and J.E. 2011-05-24 01:16:07 2011-05-24 01:16:07. yes, it is poisonuos. Utah, USA, taken under controlled conditions; Northern Red Salamander. Remember me Login Cancel. Northern Red Salamander on a rainy morning search. The eggs attach to the underside of rocks by a jelly-like stalk. Snakes of the United States and Canada. As the female retreats, the male moves forward, positioning her chin on his tail. The top and sides of the body vary from bright crimson or coral red to purplish brown with heavy marked with irregular rounded black spots. Northern red salamanders typically eat earthworms, centipedes, other salamanders, insects, and insect larvae. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Types Of Animals. Reproductive biology of the salamander. Unlike the Mud Salamander, Red Salamanders occur at high elevations throughout Appalachia. Red Lizard Chameleon Lizard Animals And Pets Baby Animals Cute Animals Reptiles And Amphibians Mammals Beautiful Creatures Animals Beautiful. Diurnal activity, avian predation, and the question of warning coloration and cryptic coloration in salamanders. gills) due to enhanced survival of larval salamanders in fast-moving stream environments of southern Appalachia. This picture was extremely easy to take. Northern Red Salamander; Recommended Books. [4] The blackchin red salamander, P. r. schencki, differs in appearance by having strong black coloration under its chin, as well as spotting all the way to the tip of the tail. Price, and M.E. Their projectile tongues can extend and return within milliseconds, and they possess toxic-secreting glands to repel predators. Turtles of the United States and Canada. Northern red salamander - Pseudotriton ruber - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock Northern Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber ruber) - Pl.27 Identification: 3 7/8" - 7 1/8". Resources. The northern red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber ruber) is easy to identify. 1971. Description: Red salamanders are one of the largest stream salamanders in our region (4 - 6 in; 10 -15 cm). Older adults are usually less brilliant and more of an orangish or purplish brown color. New York State Museum Bulletin 324: 1-365. [8] Males mature at about 53–63 mm (2.1–2.5 in), typically at four years of age, and females mature at about 55–68 mm (2.2–2.7 in), typically at about five years of age.[8]. Bishop, S.C. 1941. [8] Since the red salamander is a large species of salamander, its presence or absence can greatly affect the ecosystem where it lives, and understanding its ecology is important to understand its role in community structures. Larvae mainly feed on invertebrates such as insect larvae and worms. Asked by Wiki User. We found this cool Northern Red Salamander April 13, then again on April 14, at The West Woods. Wilder, I.W. Description: A small (2-4 inches) dark salamander with a reddish or orange stripe down the back from the head to tail. 2015/01/02 - Northern Red Salamander- Pseudotriton ruber. Discover (and save!) [13] When threatened, red salamanders assume a defensive posture in which they curl their bodies, elevating and extending their rears, and placing their heads under their tails which are elevated and undulated from side to side.

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