types of values in geography
Sixteen U.S. Constitutional rules and legal precedents require that voting districts contain equal populations (within about 1 percent). They are not scored and do not affect your grade in any way. All of these values feed into each of our programmes and all of our modules will embody some of them. Typically, the quantities are grouped into “classes” (representing a range in data value) and a different fill is used to depict each class (see section 3.2.6 for more on data classification). Source: Constitution of Pennsylvania. This map, focused on the U.S. by state, is a variant on a choropleth map. For a more detailed description and examples, see MultiPoint. Cartographers typically use secondary sources of information to help them decide on the appropriate locations for the dots (e.g., land use maps, satellite images, or statistics collected for smaller geographic units like counties). Figure 3.14: Screenshot of the features of CrimeViz. To generate eye-catching maps with easily distinguishable data classes, choropleth maps often combine color hue differences with a change in color lightness (as with the yellow, through orange, to dark red scheme depicted in Figure 3.18 above). Registered Penn State students should return now take the self-assessment quiz about Dot Mapping, Cartograms, and Data Classification. Please send comments or suggestions on accessibility to the site editor. A primary distinction here is between maps that depict categorical (qualitative) data and those that depict numerical (quantitative) data. (iii) Questionnaires – For example, in human geography, consideration should be given to factors influencing the successful design of questionnaires (e.g. Sensors were considered 'nearby' if they fell within a 1 km-wide hexagon (which is about how far a vehicle would travel based on the speeds and times used for the EPA calculations). gardening/landscaping, waste recycling, pollution control, renewable energy and The following two graphs illustrate the differences. Many different systematic classification schemes have been developed. As of this writing, some aspects of reporting from the decennial census of 2010 are still underway. The following are illustrative examples of intangible value. Quantitative data of the kinds depicted by the maps detailed in the previous section come from a diverse array of sources. presentation, statistical techniques and analysis; using social survey and interpretative methods; collecting and analysing information using GIS and remote sensing; recognising the values and attitudes involved in debates and enquiries; interpreting and presenting relevant numerical information; information, communication and technology skills (ICT) - including word 2. retrieval. In the figure below, different gas pipelines owned by various companies are depicted in different color hues. 4 Sec. The map below shows the results of the 2008 Presidential election, with a red state signifying a majority of votes for John McCain, the republican candidate, and blue states a majority for Barack Obama, the democratic candidate. A mostly-temporary staff of over 800,000 was needed to visit the remaining households, and to produce the final count of 281,421,906. Raster Types: Discrete vs Continuous. Adapted from DiBiase, David, The Nature of Geographic Information (http://natureofgeoinfo.org), with contributions by Jim Sloan and Ryan Baxter, John A. Dutton e-Education Institute, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University. User-Defined Type Guards 1. Geology, Environmental Studies, Engineering and In 2011, for example, some $486 billion of Medicaid funds were distributed according to a formula that compared state and national per capita income. Figure 3.35: County population change rates divided into five equal interval categories. A percent is the proportion of a total (and can range from 0-100%). Meaning: Generally, value has been taken to mean moral ideas, general conceptions or orientations towards the world or sometimes simply interests, attitudes, preferences, needs, sentiments and dispositions. Figure 3.15: Screenshot of the features of Ushahidi. Derived quantities relate a data value to some reference value. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about various models used in geography: significance, needs, features, types and general classification of models! Figure 3.36: The five quantile classes mapped. finishing their course: fieldwork investigation including sampling, data collection, data Discrete data represent items that can be counted; they take on possible values that can be listed out. 2217 Earth and Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (Interestingly, Congress insists that the original enumeration or "head count" be used as the official population count, even though the estimate calculated from samples by Census Bureau statisticians is demonstrably more accurate.) Beyond the role of the census of population in determining the number of representatives per state (thus in providing the data input to reapportionment and redistricting), the Census Bureau's mandate is to provide the population data needed to support governmental operations, more broadly including decisions on allocation of federal expenditures. The width of the pipeline is constant across the entire system, exaggerating the actual width (if the width of lines represented real-world diameter of the pipes proportionally, the real pipes would be 16 miles across). Many of the characteristics are the same as the geometry data type, like the z and m value specifications for point values. In this lesson, we'll examine human & cultural geography, including what it is, and what types of topics are studied in the field. But many maps get produced without following that cartographic rule, leading to some very colorful but misleading maps as shown in the pair below. The development of specific skills A set of points. Its broader mission includes being "the preeminent collector and provider of timely, relevant, and quality data about the people and economy of the United States". The unit types down the center of the diagram nest, with each higher type composed of some number of the lower type as outlined above for blocks, block groups, and census tracts. Thus, the examples below and the ones to follow in the rest of the chapter provide just a hint of what is possible. Figure 3.23: Congressional districts of Pennsylvania. You can easily remove entries by clicking the red circle with the white X. The results of the U.S. decennial census determine states' portions of the 435 total seats in the U.S. House of Representatives. With the Country geography type implicitly at the top of the structure, the subsequent levels are numbered with 1 as the next level after Country. GCT stands for Geographic Comparison Tables, which are the most convenient way to compare data collected for all the counties, places, or congressional districts in a state, or all the census tracts in a county. Registered Penn State students should return now take the self-assessment quiz about Choropleth Mapping, Census Data, and Proportional Symbol Mapping. combination with others e.g. academic subject, it is valued by universities and a very broad range of These are human geography, physical geography and environmental geography. MODULE - 2 Major Landforms and their Economic Significance 122 Notes Changing face of the Earth GEOGRAPHY z enumerate major types of plains and explain their influence on human life; z locate major mountains, plateaus and plains on the outline map of the world. A density is a count divided by the area of the geographic unit to which the count was aggregated (e.g., the total population divided by the number of square kilometers to produce population/square mile, as in Figure 3.18). For everyone to better understand human geography, it can be defined in layman's terms as the study of the human race. Optional parameters and properties 2. Choose two thematic maps and identify at least two cartographic techniques (any that have been discussed in the chapter) the cartographer used when creating this map. Conversely, the equal interval map reveals two outlier counties that are obscured in the quantiles map. Figure 3.37: The five equal interval classes mapped. ADVERTISEMENTS: In order to put the subject on a sound footing and to command … Figure 3.41: A Temporal Comparison of Vehicle Emission in Los Angeles on December 1, 2011, created by Joshua Stevens. Type AliasesString Literal TypesNumeric Literal TypesEnum Member TypesDiscriminated Unions 1. Annual or semi-annual estimates produced from American Community Survey samples replaced the SF3 data product in 2010. layout, format and wording of questions and the number of questions) and the conduct of the questionnaires (e.g. Figure 3.17: Map of land use in the Spring Creek Watershed in central Pennsylvania. directly related to a wide range of careers. Unit)�. It (i) Cotton in the ball has limited use but after it is transformed into yarn becomes more valuable and can be used for making clothes. The other basic geometry types are POINT and LINESTRING. For example, you can create geography types called State, City, and Postal Code. In addition, districts must be drawn so as to provide equal opportunities for representation of racial and ethnic groups that have been discriminated against in the past. Info. This courseware module is part of Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences' OER Initiative. Figure 3.40: The Cost of Driving to or From East Lansing, Michigan. Human Geography: Image: World Population. The quantiles scheme is often preferred because it prevents the clumping of observations into a few categories shown in the equal intervals map. In the parlance of the Census Bureau, data associated with questions asked of all households are called 100% data and data estimated from samples are called sample data. The Census Bureau then began to distribute questionnaires by mail. Your objective is to look up the total population of each county in your home state (or an adopted state of the U.S.). SF1 data, for instance, are reported at the block or tract level.